The Maverick of Brain Optimization

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Adam Gazzely on the Tim Ferriss Show

“My lab is interested in pursuing how we can enhance cognition to improve quality of life.”
– Adam Gazzaley

Dr. Adam Gazzaley (@adamgazz) obtained an M.D. and a Ph.D. in Neuroscience at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, then postdoctoral training in cognitive neuroscience at UC Berkeley. He is now the director of the Gazzaley Lab at UC San Francisco, a cognitive neuroscience laboratory.

His recent studies go far beyond mere description — he and his lab are exploring neuroplasticity and how we can optimize cognitive abilities, even in healthy adults. So, what happens when you combine cognitive-focused video games with neurofeedback, magnetic and electrical stimulation, and even performance-enhancing drugs? Well, that’s just one of many things we cover in this conversation.

As someone with Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease on both sides of my family, I find Adam’s work to be of incredible importance and promise.  I hope this discussion blows your mind, in the best way possible.

Enjoy!

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Want to hear more from world-class scientists?
Check out my conversations with Dr. Peter Attia. In the below episode, we discuss life-extension, drinking jet fuel, ultra-endurance, human foie gras, and more (stream below or right-click here to download):

Want even more from unorthodox scientists?
Listen to my conversation with Dr. Rhonda Patrick. In this episode, we discuss life extension, optimal performance, and much more (stream below or right-click here to download):



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QUESTION(S) OF THE DAY: Are you afraid of losing cognitive function with age? If so, WHAT are you doing to prevent it? If nothing, why? Please share in the comments.

Scroll below for links and show notes…

Selected Links from the Episode

The Lab: Gazzlab.com | Photography: ComeWander.com

Show Notes

  • Why Neuroracer was considered a ‘game changer’ [7:40]
  • Theories of cognition [13:50]
  • On making the cover of Nature magazine [17:35]
  • The self-talk behind Adam’s crazy idea to build a video game to rewire the brain [19:20]
  • What inspired Adam to become a scientist [21:40]
  • Why Gazzaley Lab is unique/unusual and concepts that have jumped into the private sector [25:35]
  • Why Gazzaley decided to focus on improving cognition [34:40]
  • How Adam Gazzaley thinks about “success” [39:40]
  • Vetting people who want to be a part of Gazzaley Lab [34:05]
  • Common misconceptions about the brain and cognitive function [36:15]
  • On the likelihood that pre-existing video games have similar cognitive effects to cognition as as described in Gazzaley Lab’s video game research [43:20]
  • Most gifted books [47:10]
  • About the ‘Neuroman’ project [50:50]
  • Learn more about the games Gazzaley Labs has created to improve cognition: MetaTrain, Body Brain Trainer (BBT) and Rhythmicity [56:50]
  • How inspiration for Rhythmicity came from New Orleans, The Grateful Dead, and the AARP [1:05:30]
  • The origin of Adam Gazzaley’s interest in photography [1:10:20]
  • Morning rituals for Adam Gazzaley [1:16:20]
  • Rapid Fire Questions: Inspiration for downtimes, most listened to music, favorite cocktails, losing an eye, and plans for virtual reality [1:25:00]
  • Exploring the crossroads of hallucinogens and neuroscience [1:40:50]
  • Shortlisted compounds for pairing pharmaceuticals and video games to improve cognition [1:43:20]
  • On the neurological impacts of modafinil [1:46:05]
  • The most exciting studies related to Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TDCS) [1:47:20]
  • Advice to Adam Gazzaley’s thirty-year-old self [1:51:20]
  • What Adam Gazzaley would do with an additional 100 million dollars [1:52:50]

People Mentioned

Posted on: June 22, 2015.

The Tim Ferriss Show is generally the #1 business podcast on iTunes, and it was selected for iTunes' "Best of 2015." Each episode deconstructs world-class performers from eclectic areas (investing, sports, business, art, etc.) to extract the tactics, tools, and routines you can use. If you want to 10x your productivity, click here.

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74 comments on “The Maverick of Brain Optimization

  1. Nice. Dabbling in neurofeedback as well and it’s great fun and quite a nice journey! The whole neuro’something’ is such an awesome frontier. I feel like Star Trek (rather Brain Trek) boldly going where I haven’t gone before. Nerd-isms for the win.

    Like

    • It would be even cooler if Adam Gazzaley could blog (or similar) about this neuroman project. Quite sure a lot of us would be very keen on that.
      I have not been able to find anything official about it except being mentioned in the podcast.

      Liked by 1 person

  2. Just wanted to say that I really appreciate the genuine encouragement, thoughtfulness, and humor that you bring. I seems that you strive to bring amazing information, but what I enjoy the most is your authenticity, and the genuine kindness that I hear in you.
    I thought I would say it out loud (or write it) rather than just think it.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Prescription to play video games… Sign me up!!!

    Also, “Preventing Alzheimer’s” by Shankle (M.S., M.D) and Amen (M.D) is a good book on preventing the symptoms of Alzheimer’s. The book talks on how the right training and knowledge one can have the disease and maintain a normal life. You can use it as a tool to reduce risk and recognize symptoms.

    I’m like Tim have both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s in my family history so interviews like this are very appreciated. I can’t wait for these games to be mainstream!

    Like

    • My 88 year old grandmother (Nana) is such an interesting case. She has spent her whole life doing cryptic crossword puzzles. I never really thought that much of cryptic crosswords until I actually tried one and learned that the clues, are a puzzle in themselves. I digress.

      Nana recently had a series of strokes, somewhere in the brainstem (apparently). Why she’s so interesting is that because she’s still very sharp, she can give me a running commentary on the parts of her brain that AREN’T working.

      eg. I can hold in mind the THING that I want to say, and I can describe it. Like, it’s round, it’s ceramic, people usually eat their breakfast out of it, mine are white, it’s sort of shaped like this {makes gestures with her hands}. But I have trouble just coming out and saying it’s a ‘bowl’.

      She’s truly fascinated by her own shortcomings and how her brain has changed. It’s such an interesting way to end your life!

      Of course, I took up Cryptic Crossword puzzles.

      Like

  4. I do wonder how much better off most people would be if they just committed to a consistent long-term meditation practice vs. reading about ways to improving cognition through other methods, using PEDs or engaging in other lab-rat-style experiments. I’m not referring to scientists (who I encourage in pushing boundaries!), but lay-people, including the type of folks who seem to be reading this blog and other similar blogs on the web.

    I say this since a large proportion of the bio/life-hackers I know spend an inordinate amount of time research and studying ways to hack their lives, as opposed to doing things that are proven to work (e.g. meditation, eating an ancestral diet, getting daily exercise, spending time with friends and family, etc.).

    Ravi
    [Moderator: link removed]

    Like

  5. Great Episode.

    Tim: Your theory of hallucinogens is very interesting.
    From my own experience, I really think Hallucinogens act more as Positive or Negative Allosteric Modulators of receptors that we have, making us more receptive to external certain signals, or antagonizing our inhibitions of those signals.
    It’s a mechanism that underlies the effect of many other already known substances, for example substances that enhance auditory, gustatory or olfactory senses.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allosteric_modulator
    Another example being Ethanol, which acts as a positive allosteric modulator on GABA A receptors, increasing the potency of ligand binding.

    What I’m doing to maintain cognitive abilities.:
    Constant learning and pursuit of excitement.
    Never accepting boredom, but realizing that ‘Boredom is the worst case scenario’. The opposite of boredom being, in my book: Wonder, sudden life-changing realizations.

    Like

  6. hi Tim,
    This comment is more of a way to reach you, not a comment as such.

    I met you once in Samovar in the Mission. This was many years ago and you will not remember me. I am a big fan of the “4 hour body” and am in india currently. I think Yoga can address many physical and mental issues. I am a software engineer and musician and artist, etc. and have many ideas and would like to connect with you.

    PS: Cindy knows me well

    Thanks,
    Ra

    Like

  7. Fantastic topic Tim! And it’s great to see you getting behind such important work that really is ground breaking. We had Dr Joe Dispenza on our podcast a few weeks ago and I attended his work shop with him the weekend in Melbourne. Incredible! It literally is mind altering stuff!

    I look forward to listening to your conversation with Dr Adam Gazzaley🙂 & a big thanks for making your podcasts available to us all! Guy

    Like

  8. Thanks Tim!
    What I love the most about a podcast like this is that it just brings the listener as if there are sitting in a living room chatting with a group of friends over wine. The best kind of immersion.
    On a perhaps unrelated note (although wine was mentioned in this podcast), are there any devices, vacuum or otherwise, that you recommend to keep wine fresh longer? Much thanks and make a wonderful evening!

    Like

  9. One of the best articles I have read and I am looking forward to knowing about it more. Being in the 21st century where mankind has invented or developed something and this is brain optimization is very promising i and I am sure it will improve the quality of one’s life if it is used by someone who wants to improve his life in a good way but I am just wondering.. since it is a brain optimization.. mainly the logic there is to optimize your brain.. make your brain process information faster but what are the fall backs of this new development as far as morale is concerned?

    Like

  10. This podcast just keeps getting better! THANK YOU for that!

    DISCLAIMER: My ignorance; sorry in case it finds its way to the surface somehow. Keep reading, please.

    I’ve come up with an idea for your podcast! I, personally am “lucky” in that I already had read Surely You’re Joking Mr. Feynman, and knew about the guy, so I felt more connected to the conversation you had about him. But that got me thinking about all those other people who haven’t had the “time” to dig deeper into Richard’s life. Combined with the fact that you’re so good at researching and bringing up interesting things about most things/people, I thought it would be cool to maybe have some kind conversation with dead people, where you/your team try your best to figure out how truly amazing, but sadly dead, people like Richard Feynman would have answered to your questions which you usually ask living people on your show. It might just be the crazy me, who’d find it interesting, but I think dead people are still people and it would make for an interesting piece of work!

    Dear reader, please like and/or reply to this comment if you find the idea worth a shot!🙂

    Like

  11. Hi Everyone, Hi Tim, I’m 57 and I just discovered you and your work and podcasts. Absolutely amazing! But more than that, I’m completely inspired. Completely motivated to devour more of your podcasts and learn how to utilize information in my life while traveling the road to excellent health. Just wanted to say thank you for all the great work and effort you’ve put into this realm of research. Exciting times ahead as I continue to learn more about this fascinating and extremely important topic. Again, thank you!

    Like

  12. To avoid Parkinsons, avoid exposure to chemicals. For brain – as much as possible – physical exercise, meditation, cold pressed juicer, plant based diet, grass fed protein, no headache pills so when you have a headache think first of what you ate or drank that may have caused it, drink pure water, avoid chemical drugs unless your life depends on them.

    Like

  13. Hey Tim, love the show. Been hooked since your interview with Justin Boreta! I definitely have a concern about my cognition considering that I am in recovery and have, well, “abused” my brain in the past. That said I’ve had a mild interest in nootropics but honestly not done a great deal of research on them. I know the best way for me to learn about things is to just do the digging but that usually opens up pandoras box and I find myself obsessed, reading article after article of said topic, losing myself in a sea of information and I usually end up confused as to which product to choose. Maybe do an episode or blog of some of the nootropic compounds that have positive, documented benefits and the research to back them up. There’s so many manufacturers out there with incredible marketing backing them, it’s easy to get misdirected. Thanks so much, your show is an inspiration.

    Like

  14. Yes if there’s one thing I am afraid of it is mental degradation. I’m only 20 years old but it is something real and I see it effect people close to me.

    Getting old is a fear of mine. Will it be in 20 years? Maybe not. Maybe. But right now after listening to Grain Brain I know cutting large portions of guten and sugar will drastically benefit me and my brain.

    Like

  15. Tim. I love LOVE LOVE this podcast. And the science themed ones are uber cool. I think the scientific method, observing and interpreting results should be something we teach. Especially experiment set up: related to neuroscience, I read about one experiment that shut down human language ability and tested if we could recall which wall in a room (4 walls) is red. Results, without language we’re as dumb as rats, i.e. we’re guessing.

    The scientists accomplished this by making the test subjects read while they change the color of the wall. Apparently that old adage about filling a cup that is full is true. And we can’t really multi-task.

    But you can probably see all that from the memory-knowledge you’ve gained.
    Anywho, more scientist with detailed experiments would be AWESOME. I mean, that testing of book covers you documented in the four hour work week locked me in as a fan for life. Forget being lucky, forget being smart, testing is superior to both, it reveals the truth.

    Also, thank you for the long format and MEAT-y podcasts. The Tim Ferriss experiment is awesome, but only 22 min of screen time is way too short! So what a wonderful medium you have found for us. THANK YOU SO MUCH! very awesome and always looking forward to the next.

    Liked by 1 person

  16. Both you and Dr. Gazzaley should check out the documentary, “Alive Inside” which is about the consist effect listening to music from their era is having on the elderly.

    Also, you may be interested in how sugar is contributing to dementia.

    Thanks for your books and podcasts!
    Janine

    Like

  17. Regarding the 10% myth, once upon a time I did neurofeedback under someone in the neurofeedback industry since its inception. She told me that the 10% myth came from when instruments were only sensitive enough to read activity in the motor cortex strip, which occupies about 10% of the brain. The media sensationalized and romanticised it (as they are apt to do) and the myth just wouldn’t die even after sensors improved enough to determine we use much more than 10%.

    No idea if this is completely accurate, but it is the only semi-official source I have ever found for this.

    Like

  18. I listen to your podcasts on my iPhone during my drive to and from work. I also take all my breaks and lunches in my vehicle so I can listen to them. While I find most of them fascinating, for me this one has been the most intriguing and interesting of them all so far. I wish you could have seen my eyes light up when Dr. Gazzaley mentioned the Foundation series of books by Issac Asimov. I too have read and reread those books. As I have aged they have taken on new meaning and perspective. Gordon R Dickson’s Dorsai/Childe series of books were another favorite. I also was a bio/chemistry major in college until love wrecked my then academic life and I left school to pursue the woman of my dreams. When I eventually came to my senses and renewed my education, I left my passion behind and began taking business courses. Now, late in life, I realize I locked myself into a passionless relationship with the corporate world. Though it’s too late to alter that particular course, I am working to change what the final years remaining to me will look like, and this podcast may just be one of those transformational moments that you both spoke of. And, yes, I am afraid of losing my cognitive abilities as I continue with this aging process. I am working on limiting that loss by improving my overall physical health through eating a paleo/natural whole food inspired diet, exercise and improving my gut health so I can properly absorb the nutrients I need. Also studying mitochondria and ATP production for bioenergetic needs and what I need to promote improvement there. I take a regimen of resveratrol, PQQ and CoQ10 along with other supplements to attempt to improve mitochondrial health. Looking all the time for new and better information for brain health. Big thank-you to you and Dr. Gazzaley for this incredible podcast. Looking forward to the day when he and his team release some of those games to the general public.

    Like

  19. As far as brain function goes,I’m a 63 yr old woman. I workout 5-6 days a week at 90% max HR (treadmill), play and study the drums 4-6 hours a day, eat healthfully, supplement. I lost 50 lbs a year ago and have adopted a new lifestyle to keep it off. Your podcasts and books are inspiring and motivational. I’ve started journaling, and meditating. Thank you for your good work! You’re a hoot Tim

    Like

    • Tim is a hoot! He also likes to drop the f bomb, which makes him all the more relatable.🙂
      I agree quality, quantity and range of information he has shared has been fantastic and so welcome.

      Like

  20. Awesome. I have a question. I’m a married man with a child. I wanna do the Definition Step of DEAL, should i use a DreamLine WorkSheet for me and my wife both together or an DreamLine WorkSheet for each one separately?

    Like

  21. Another great podcast
    What am I doing to fight the decline (I am 56)?
    I have given up grains and sugar, (This one change has meant no sinusitis any more after suffering my whole life, no IBS, no Psoriasis) learning languages, (audio tapes, fluentU and Duolingo), exercising more, playing Nozuku Rush ( tetris with arithmetic).
    Planning to start learning a musical instrument and meditating more regularly (used to do this years ago – I agree with Arnold that it does have lasting effects)
    Listening to more of Tim’s podcasts and after this one getting back into first person shooters ( I used to love Descent – is there a newer version of this?)

    Like

  22. Hey Tim,

    Love the podcast and the TV show! I have a question about the transcripts. I was happy to see them offered and even grabbed a few after purchasing the TV season. I was hoping the first part of your interview with Pavel Tsatsouline would be included. I could only find part 2 with the Q&A. I’ve listened to that episode several times now and would love a transcript if possible.

    Thank you,
    Greg

    Like

  23. You asked if I am afraid of losing cognitive ability as I age. My family does not suffer from cancer or anything like that — in fact we tend to live well past 80 years old. The curse is dementia.

    It leaves a lasting mark on you when you tell your grandmother who suffers from Alzheimer’s that a tornado is coming, and she deadpans back, “Who’s Tornado?”

    She often did crosswords to attempt to stem her cognitive decline. I have heard physical activity, even as little as walking, showed promising results in Alzheimer patients. I avoid deodorant containing metals (particularly aluminum). I know that I DON’T know what will help, so I have prescribed myself a healthy regimen of challenging work, constant learning, video games, and the occasional dalliance with cognitive enhancing drugs like piracetam.

    That grandmother, by the way, had a surprising party trick. Even though she couldn’t remember her family’s names, she could sit down at a grand piano and play a perfect concerto from start to finish with no sheet music. Then she’d stand up and continue on her way like nothing happened. ~

    Like

    • I got so swept up I forgot to list the #1 thing I do to combat cognitive decline: being physically active! Strength training, Brazilian jiu jitsu, and hiking keep my mind right.

      Like

  24. Wow, this was one of your best interviews and one of the most intriguing conversations I’ve heard on your podcast. I love the opportunity for creativity that science, technology, and medicine provide. It’s one thing to be an expert in your field. It’s quite another to make scientific breakthroughs by combining 3 or 4 different fields of expertise.

    Like

  25. COOL! As a producer of tDCS system, I would like to express my appreciation for all the works done about neuroscience. With all these contribution more and more people will get noticed and be able to improve the quality of life!

    Like

  26. I don’t want You to think that I am just spamming, but You really inspired me and I created a blog. If You could find a minute, that would be a big privilege for me, if You just come and see. Thank You. [Moderator: link removed]

    Like

  27. Love all of your content Tim, I have for years. Can’t wait to read this book. I’ve plugged away at things for a few years, and finally come up with a virtual company – straight Tim Ferris style. It has take a long time, but my [Moderator: link removed] is rolling!

    Like

  28. Tim, I’m not a scientist…but have really loved the Rhonda / Peter Attia and now this interview! I vote yes to the direction. What makes your interviews stand-out though is the thoughtfulness of the questioning, the mix of serious and “let’s not take life too seriously” bonhomie, and the naturally highly curious minds on the end of your question marks…

    Like

  29. Great conversation and needless to say…you lit my encephalon UP. Couple of observations and questions:

    While I understand Dr. Gazzaley’s great passion wedded with his savvy business model, as well as his effort to bring an integrated approach to these 21st Century, brain science informed modalities, what can be said about these questions:

    Adam alluded to not knowing exactly what “up-regulates” global brain function (perhaps I misinterpreted…). Don’t ancestral health principles, e.g., eating, moving, thinking, feeling, and sleeping well already built into the 2.6 million year old genetic blueprint/intelligence, inform us–just via evolutionary biology?

    In Adam’s effort to apply the scientific process with gold standard RTC’s/blinded studies, how can he take into account the phenomenon of “nature deprivation” when attempting to rule in/out limiting factors? He was admittedly “nature deprived” growing up in New York. How does this inconvenient truth about most of us 21st Century citizens get factored into the most robust approach/outcomes for these modalities?

    To sum it up, isn’t a big part of the problem trying to apply a reductionistic approach to a target organ that is so inextricably connected to a “super system” including the magnificent environment from which it emerged? IE, How in the world could these evolved biotech approaches take all of what’s necessary into consideration while, and again circumventing the already known truth that if we’re not eating, moving, thinking, feeling and sleeping well one day at a time for a lifetime, we’re not well?

    ‘N the good doctor just hammering down the high spots again with a new form of a pill?

    Like

  30. And Ps….I got so excited to ask these questions, I haven’t yet finished the conversation with just a few minutes left..forgive me if this was mentioned…But I’m wondering what Dr. Gazzaley thinks about applying these modalities to addiction medicine.

    It occurs to me that what I have done through my own addiction recovery and remission is much of what he discussed including integrated nutrition, up regulating with music, strength training, CV exercise, flexibility, cognitive, emotional and psycho-spiritual practices.

    Any thoughts on a subject/issue (addiction) that is literally dying for fresh approaches?

    Like

  31. The podcast made me think about: 1. the importance of the time before and around “the peak”, especially the role of inspiration and mentoring (tutoring? ). Since you miss the feminine percpective (which is not exactly your fault :)) let me point out, that this is something most women lack more than men. But anyway… It is not only about what you can loose, when you start “getting old”, but also what you “put in the box” in the first place, when your abilities are at it’s so called peak. 2. The whole subject of CHANGE is fascinating. I wonder what kind of pre-conditions and conditions could have played a role in the study in which the videogames made such an improvement. As we know f.ex. from studies on stereotype threat effect, even the instruction can make a difference. And then the enhancement of self-esteem?…But those are some psychological variables, I don’t know if they were taken under consideration in this study, I will have to take a look🙂

    Like

  32. Tim,

    With regards the philosophical questions surrounding virtual reality, you *have* to watch this new TED Talk by Donald Hofmann if you haven’t seen it already:

    He convincingly argues that reality as we perceive it is actually a user interface (with limited resolution, incidentally), and fundamentally different from reality as it really is. Mind-blowing.

    B

    Like

  33. I also have family members who suffer from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. If you’re in a position to support research in these areas, please do what you can.

    Like

  34. I take steps to eat well and get most of my nutritional requirements on a day to day level but i’m prone to occasional periods of degeneracy that certainly compromise access to my optimal cognitive performance.

    Like

  35. Thanks for this interview! While I love all the podcasts, it was great to hear from a scientist! You pointed this out, but the “it depends” is such a classical answer to hear from all the scientists.

    A couple areas got pretty down into the weeds of data, so any chance we could get an interview with Nate Silver?

    Like

  36. This was a great podcast. Thank you!

    I am more afraid of cancer than Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s diseases. Everything we come in contact on a daily basis has carcinogen to some degree. You need to live on top of a mountain, make your own furniture, grow your own vegetables, fruits and raise your own animals to be safe. Susan Freinkel’s book Plastic: A Toxic Love Story is an eye opener. I avoid plastic consumption as much as I can. No plastic cups for drinks, no plastic plates or spoons and forks, no plastic containers etc.

    This article from 2012 might be of interest to you: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/can-bees-lead-to-a-longer-human-life-span/

    That article makes you wonder if “social” media really makes people social or just the other way around. We live in an information age, but people are getting unhealthier (more obesity).

    I appreciate Adam Gazzaley’s work to move the society forward. I prefer listening to people who talk calm, not fast like you are rushing to catch something. Rick Rubin podcast was a real pleasure in that way.

    All the best xx

    Like

  37. Dimentia on one side of the family. 100% of that family side by 55. So I’m very concerned. I turned to Brain Light Therapy here in Dallas to remap damaged areas of the brain. Works very well, very quickly.

    I also am exploring Functional Medicine for whole body health to heal any brain/health connection. This is slower but extremely
    Important for keeping the brain healthy. I am seeing whole body healing.

    Like

  38. Tim, hi.

    I feel that you get a too attached to using your interview questions instead of exploring what is coming up at the moment.

    I missed questions like “what habits can anyone do to improve brain plasticity and cognition and what do you do for it other than videogame?”

    I find this would have been more interesting than what whiskey he drinks, for example.

    Someone wrote something similar about your FIRST interview with Josh Waitzkin last year:

    “Only piece of constructive criticism: I felt the lowest value portions of both were the abrupt transitions to rapid-fire-question sections, especially in the second podcast. It seemed as though you interrupted a solid flow on Joshua’s dialogue with a few A B C canned questions. ”

    Still applies. What about using canned questions as backups only when you run out of words, but otherwise explore more what is being said at the moment?

    Other than that, exciting stuff.

    Like

  39. Hmm sounds to me like Gazzaley is really testing people’s ability to habitualise behaviors and isn’t really testing multitasking because that is something we can’t actually do: think about 2 things at once. It’s more likely that players are becoming good at forming habits than becoming good at “multitasking.” Right?

    Like

  40. Tim,

    I have a 2 year old son with Down Syndrome. He is a fantastic little guy and healthy as can be. He is obviously delayed in growth and cognitive ability. I’ve seen articles about the link between Alzheimer’s and Down Syndrome and that they are related. Do you think Dr. Gazzaley’s work in improving cognitive ability could work in the Down Syndrome community?

    Like